Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning.
Knowledge can refer to a theoretical or practical understanding of a subject. It can be implicit (as with practical skill or expertise) or explicit it can be more or less formal or systematic.
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Tuesday, 14 February 2017
Trivia Answers (Grab Points Quiz #471)
1. Ruler of the
Huns from 434 until his demise in March of 453, Attila battled which
TheRoman Empire(Latin:Imperium Rōmānum;Classical Latin: KoineandMedieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων,tr.Basileia tōn Rhōmaiōn) was the post-Roman Republicperiod of theancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed byemperorsand large territorial holdings around theMediterranean Seain Europe, Africa and Asia. The city ofRomewas thelargest city in the worldc. 100BC –c. 400AD, withConstantinople(New Rome) becoming the largest around 500 AD,and the Empire's populace grew to an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants (roughly 20% of the world's population at the time). The 500-year-oldrepublicwhich preceded it was severely destabilized in a series ofcivil warsand political conflict, during whichJulius Caesarwas appointed as perpetualdictatorand then assassinated in 44 BC. Civil wars andexecutionscontinued, culminating in the victory ofOctavian, Caesar's adopted son, overMark AntonyandCleopatraat theBattle of Actiumin 31 BC and the annexation ofEgypt. Octavian's power was then unassailable and in 27 BC the Roman Senate formally granted himoverarching powerand the new titleAugustus, effectively marking the end of theRoman Republic. The imperial period of Rome lasted approximately 1,500 years compared to the 500 years of the Republican era. The first two centuries of the empire's existence were a period of unprecedented political stability and prosperity known as thePax Romana, or "Roman Peace". Following Octavian's victory, the size of the empire was dramatically increased. After the assassination ofCaligulain 41, the senate briefly considered restoring the republic, but thePraetorian GuardproclaimedClaudius emperor instead. Under Claudius, the empire invadedBritannia, its first major expansion since Augustus. After Claudius' successor,Nero, committed suicide in 68, the empire suffered aseries of brief civil wars, as well as a concurrentmajor rebellion in Judea, during which four different legionary generals were proclaimed emperor.Vespasianemerged triumphant in 69, establishing theFlavian dynasty, before being succeeded by his sonTitus, who opened theColosseumshortly after theeruption of Mount Vesuvius. His short reign was followed by the long reign of his brotherDomitian, who was eventually assassinated. The senate then appointed the first of theFive Good Emperors. The empire reached its greatest extent underTrajan, the second in this line. A period of increasing trouble and decline began with the reign ofCommodus. Commodus' assassination in 192 triggered theYear of the Five Emperors, of whichSeptimius Severusemerged victorious. The assassination ofAlexander Severusin 235 led to theCrisis of the Third Centuryin which 26 men were declared emperor by the Roman Senate over a fifty-year time span. It was not until the reign ofDiocletianthat the empire was fully stabilized with the introduction of theTetrarchy, which saw four emperors rule the empire at once. This arrangement was ultimately unsuccessful, leading to a civil war that was finally ended byConstantine I, who defeated his rivals and became the sole ruler of the empire. Constantine subsequently shifted the capital toByzantium, which was renamed "Constantinople" in his honour. It remained the capital of theeastuntil its demise. Constantine also adoptedChristianitywhich later became the official state religion of the empire. This eastern part of the empire (modernly called "Byzantine Empire") remained one of the leading powers in the world alongside its arch-rival theSassanid Empire, which had inherited a centuries-oldRoman-Persian conflict from its predecessor theParthians.Following the death ofTheodosius I, the last emperor to rule a united Roman Empire, the dominion of the empire was gradually eroded byabuses of power, civil wars, barbarian migrations and invasions, military reforms and economic depression. TheSack of Rome in 410 by the Visigothsandagain in 455 by the Vandalsaccelerated the Western Empire's decay, while the deposition of the emperor,Romulus Augustulus, in 476 byOdoacer, is generally accepted to mark the end of the empire in the west. However, Augustulus was never recognized by his Eastern colleague, and separate rule in the Western part of the empire only ceased to exist upon the death ofJulius Nepos, in 480. TheEastern Roman Empireendured for another millennium, eventuallyfalling to the Ottoman Turks in 1453.
2. Which Pope reigned the earliest ?
Pope Innocent XIII(Latin:Innocentius XIII; 13 May 1655 – 7 March 1724) was born asMichelangelo dei Contiand wasPopefrom 8 May 1721 to his death in 1724. He is the last pope to date to take the pontifical name of "Innocent" upon his election. Pope Innocent XIII was reform-oriented, and he imposed new standards of frugality, abolishing excessive spending. He took steps to finally end the practice of nepotism by issuing a decree which forbade his successors from granting land, offices or income to any relatives - something opposed by many cardinals who hoped that they might become pope and benefit their families. After the death ofPope Clement XIin 1721, a conclave was called to choose a new pope. It took 75 ballots just to reach a decision and choose Conti as the successor of Clement XI. After all candidates seemed to slip, support turned to Conti. The curial factions also turned their attention to him. In the morning of 8 May 1721, he was elected. He chose the name of Innocent XIII in honour ofPope Innocent III. On the following 18 May, he was solemnly crowned by the protodeacon, CardinalBenedetto Pamphili.
3. English physician Edward Jenner famously invented the
vaccination for what disease ?
Smallpoxwas aninfectious diseasecaused by either of twovirus variants,Variola majorandVariola minor.The disease is also known by theLatinnamesvariolaorvariola vera, derived fromvarius("spotted") orvarus("pimple"). The disease was originally known in English as the "pox"or "red plague";the term "smallpox" was first used in Britain in the 15th century to distinguish variola from the "great pox" (syphilis).The last naturally occurring case of smallpox (Variola minor) was diagnosed on 26 October 1977. Infection with smallpox is focused in smallblood vesselsof the skin and in the mouth and throat before disseminating. In the skin it results in a characteristicmaculopapular rashand, later, raised fluid-filledblisters.V. majorproduced a more serious disease and had an overallmortality rateof 30–35 percent.V. minorcaused a milder form of disease (also known asalastrim) which killed about 1 percent of those it infects.Long-term complications ofV. majorinfection included characteristic scars, commonly on the face, which occur in 65–85 percent of survivors.Blindnessresulting fromcorneal ulcerationand scarring, and limb deformities due to arthritis andosteomyelitiswere less common complications, seen in about 2–5 percent of cases. Smallpox is believed to have been acquired by humans originally as azoonosisfrom a terrestrial African rodent between 16,000 and 68,000 years ago, well before the dawn of agriculture and civilization. The earliest physical evidence of it is probably the pustular rash on the mummified body of PharaohRamses Vof Egypt.The disease killed an estimated 400,000 Europeans annually during the closing years of the 18th century (including five reigningmonarchs),and was responsible for a third of all blindness. Of all those infected, 20–60 percent—and over 80 percent of infected children—died from the disease.Smallpox was responsible for an estimated 300–500 million deaths during the 20th century.As recently as 1967, theWorld Health Organization(WHO) estimated that 15 million people contracted the disease and that two million died in that year. Aftervaccinationcampaigns throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, the WHO certified theglobal eradicationof smallpox in 1979.Smallpox is one of twoinfectious diseasesto have been eradicated, the other beingrinderpest, which was declared eradicated in 2011.
Invitation Code: XD47PI
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